Saturday, March 14, 2020
Essay on Cyber TerrorismEssay Writing Service Essay on Cyber Terrorism Essay on Cyber TerrorismThe use of the Internet by terrorist groups will continue to become more sophisticated.Ã As an effective tool used daily in the world of business and pleasure, the Internet is widely used in the murky world of terrorism. It is used not just for the practice of recruiting, but all forms of terrorist logistics. According to Lachow Richardson (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"cyberterrorism conjures images of infrastructure failures, economic disasters, and even large-scale loss of lifeÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). It has been widely discussed in the mass media sources and the academic literature. The real threat of cyberterrorism is real attracts attention of millions of people, who realize that Ã¢â¬Å"terrorist organizations effectively using the Internet to stymie U.S. efforts to win the Long WarÃ¢â¬ (Lachow Richardson, 2007, p.1). The Internet allows terrorists to operate as both decentralized franchises and freelancers. The use of the Internet and new communication technologies facili tates the major operations of terrorist organizations.Ã According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"as information and communication technologies improve over time, terrorist groups might utilize these improvements more powerfully for offensive usesÃ¢â¬ (Pekgozlu et al., 2007, p. 281). Terrorists use the Internet and communication technologies for several aims: Ã¢â¬Å"propaganda, indoctrination, recruitment, psychological warfare, and fundraisingÃ¢â¬ (Pekgozlu et al., 2007, p. 282). The latest information and communication technologies selected by terrorist include not only the Internet, such as World Wide Websites, e-mails and video conferencing, but also cell phones, smartphones, fax machines. It has been found that one of the major goals of modern day terrorism in to produce and enhance publicity, drawing public attention to terrorist organizations, their causes and outcomes. In other words, terrorist organizations are focused on advancing their political, ideological and religious agendas. The Internet completely changed the way terrorists launder money, recruit men and communicate their ideology.The major goal of this paper is to discuss the Internet Jihad and Cyber Jihad, placing emphasis on the major aims of terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of the Internet and communication technologies, including fundraising, money laundering, communications and recruitment. Moreover, it is necessary to explain how the use of the Internet helps to radicalize and inspire Jihad.The use of the Internet for FundraisingSome terrorist organizations use the Internet as a source of fundraising. These terrorist organizations sell DVDs, CDs, book, magazines, flags and other items over the Internet. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"the Internet has become a popular fundraising tool for terrorist organizationsÃ¢â¬ (McClellan Dorn, 2008, p. 23). The global use of the Internet provides unlimited opportunities for financiers. Many terrorist organizations may openly raise funds on their Web si tes, using popular and widely accepted pay services, such as PayPal (Pekgozlu et al., 2007).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition, terrorists not only establish fundraising practices via the Internet, but also they Ã¢â¬Å"increasingly conduct identity theft of ordinary Web users, including the stealing of credit card information, to help them finance terrorist attacksÃ¢â¬ (McClellan Dorn, 2008, p. 23). Fundraising plays an important role in the development of terrorist organizations because this practice is used to identify the profiles of potential financial supporter of terrorism. Terrorists use not only the profiles of visitors of the websites that promote terrorist activity, but also they use the posts found in chat rooms, bulletin boards and encourage the use of mass e-mailing to encourage donations (Acharya, 2009). There is much evidence that many terrorists attacks were funded by the money received from credit card frauds via the Internet (Acharya, 2009 ; Pekgozlu et al., 2007).The use of the Internet for Money LaunderingTerrorists use the Internet for money laundering. According to Arabinda Acharya (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"cyber-laundering is about using the Internet and electronic cash to turn illegally obtained money into untraceable fundsÃ¢â¬ (p.68).Terrorists use e-cash as an effective tool to launder money. Ã It is known that radical ideologies produced by the leaders of terrorism, such as Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, were posted via the Internet in the form of appeals for money. These appeals were found in speeches and statement placed on web sites. The leaders of terrorist organizations recognize the powerful role of the Internet in money laundering, encouraging all Muslims and supported of terrorism to contribute money for the growth of jihad. In Osama ben LadenÃ¢â¬â¢s message, there was an appeal to all Muslims to provide support to Ã¢â¬Å"their bothers in Iraq with money and menÃ¢â¬ (Acharya, 2009, p. 68).In add ition, many jihadist leaders state that monetary contribution provided my all Muslims and terrorism supporters is similar to physical engagement in jihadÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. There have already been many calls for donations on the Internet. For example, the website developed by Harkat ul-Mujahidin, terrorist group from Pakistan, argues that Ã¢â¬Å"Allah gives an opportunity to take part in the struggle for Muslim rights Ã¢â¬â jihadÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Acharya, 2009, p. 68). Undoubtedly, these appeals for jihad donations can be assessed as extremely influential because of the widespread anti-West politics (Acharya, 2009).The use of the Internet for CommunicationsToday terrorists use the Internet for different forms of communication. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"the jihad terrorism web infrastructure websites suddenly emerge, frequently modify their formats, swiftly disappear or change their online addressÃ¢â¬ (Bockstette, 2010, p. 18). The communication strategy developed by ter rorists promoted the ideas of jihadist leaders. The first online terrorist magazine was published in 2003. Although the number of jihadist websites was reduced due to the work of law enforcement agencies, terrorists continue to use different strategies for the promotion of their Internet communication. They use forums and blogs to disseminating their ideas as propaganda of their activity. As a rule, these forums and blogs offer access to the proper files, which are stored on free storage sites. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"since this material is spread over numerous web servers located all-round the globe, blocking access to these files becomes virtually impossibleÃ¢â¬ (Bockstette, 2010, p.18).In fact, terrorist are focused on a particular target groups in their communications. As a result, the messages and the channels selected for these messages are tailored to the needs and requirement of the target groups, e.g. the use of different languages, the age, race and ethnicity o f the representatives of the target groups, etc. (Acharya, 2009). According to researchers, terrorists Ã¢â¬Å"determine the location and timing of their actions to satisfy media criteria for news worthiness that fit in with the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s deadlines and news cycles in order to effectively reach the desired audienceÃ¢â¬ (Bockstette, 2010, p.18). Thus, many jihadist leaders prefer to use the Internet communication because it provides an opportunity to communicate in real time.In addition, the Internet communication provides an opportunity to promote terrorist knowledge in the form of educational sessions specially developed for the followers of terrorists. Researchers believe that terrorists use online communication to gather intelligence and distribute the required information.Ã Online communication allows terrorists to Ã¢â¬Å"operate like decentralized franchises or freelancersÃ¢â¬ (Bockstette, 2010, p.18). Due to decentralized terrorist networks, online communication al lows terrorist groups to function as the so-called virtual international organizations, which have the ability to reach the audiences in different parts of the world. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"terrorists can also use the Internet communication as a tool of psychological warfare through spreading disinformation, delivering threats and disseminating horrific imagesÃ¢â¬ (Conway, 2006, p. 283).The use of the Internet for RecruitmentÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Internet is used by terrorist groups for recruitment of jihadists, including suicide bombers for committing attacks, the killers, the kidnappers, the engineers and the soldiers. It has been found that the groups of jihadists do not always participate in training of recruits via the Internet. They try to use different approaches (Acharya, 2009). Ã However, in 2004, the groups of Al-Qaeda located in the Arabian Peninsula used the Internet to promote training practices of recruits. According to research ers, Al-Qaeda launched a specially developed magazine Muaskar Al-Battar to enhance the process of training and preparation of recruits and Ã¢â¬Å"attempted to instigate current and potential jihadists to use this knowledge to create additional camps and cellsÃ¢â¬ (McClellan Dorn, 2008, p. 25).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Moreover, recruitment of soldiers by jihad groups via the Internet offers terrorists massive opportunities for successful operations. Without recruitment, terrorism cannot exist. Terrorist recruitment via the Internet provides a number of advantages: easy access to the proper information, the global reach and interactive communication (McClellan Dorn, 2008).The role of the Internet and communication technologies in promoting, inspiring and radicalizing JihadThe Internet helps to radicalize and inspire Jihad. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"the Internet is not merely used by Salafi-Jihadist operatives as a tool to stage terrorist attacks but als o fulfills several important needs for the rank and fileÃ¢â¬ (McClellan Dorn, 2008, p. 23). The Internet has become an important tool for those who want to participate in the so-called larger Muslim ummaÃ¢â¬ promoting a sense of identity, empowerment and solidarity. The Internet is used by terrorists to Ã¢â¬Å"generate forum where individuals who feel humiliated and jilted can regain a sense of community, solidarity, brotherhood and new identityÃ¢â¬ (McClellan Dorn, p. 26). Globalization helped terrorists to solidify the establishment of Muslim identity and promote solidarity, uniting many terrorists by means of new technologies.In addition, the Internet can be viewed as an influential tool for the activities of jihadists because it Ã¢â¬Å"helps them to celebrate such victories as the attacks of 9/11, thus humiliating their enemies, while undoing their own humiliation, which they claim to have endured through centuries of perceived anti-Muslim policies and Western subjuga tionÃ¢â¬ (McClellan Dorn, 2008, p. 26). For example, in 2006, terrorists published propaganda to celebrate their victory. The video clip was called Attack on Manhattan. It provided much information on the event 9/11 from terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective, including the interviews with two suicide hijackers.In general, jihadists are interested in continual usage of the Internet, although they Ã¢â¬Å"seek to overcome in cyberspace specific obstacles they face from armies and police forces in the physical worldÃ¢â¬ (Coll Glasser, 2005, p.1). Ã In the process of planning terrorist attacks, radical operatives, involved in the spread of terrorism, find themselves at high risk while crossing the border with false documents. Undoubtedly, they feel themselves much safer when they are working on the Web. Terrorists understand that Ã¢â¬Å"both time and space have in many ways been conquered by the InternetÃ¢â¬ (Coll Glasser, 2005, p.1). As a result, the number of active jihadist-rel ated Web sites has been increased since September 11, 2001. There were more than 5000 Web sites in 2005. Today these numbers are even more dramatic.Ã Furthermore, terrorist organizations Ã¢â¬Å"have become expert at using the Internet to manipulate both public opinion and media coverage in ways that undermine American interestsÃ¢â¬ (Lachow Richardson, 2007, p.1).ConclusionThus, it is necessary to conclude that terrorist groups use the Internet and communication technologies to present their goals, disseminate propaganda and recruit new followers and supporters.Ã The anonymous nature of the opportunities provided by the Internet attracts attention of terrorists. Although the Internet protects the privacy and confidentiality of its users, at the same time, it makes it difficult to identify those users who are engaged in illegal activities.Ã Online communication allows jihad organizations to maintain and promote group identity, radical ideology and indoctrination. Terroris ts use the Internet communication as a tool of psychological warfare through spreading disinformation, which inspires fear in people that is caused by delivering threats and publicizing horrific images of victims of terrorism. The Web sites created by jihad organizations are linked indirectly through association of belief and ideology, belonging to some community, which tend to connect them all into the virtual jihad community.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a directly elected president of the Commision for the European Union - Essay Example These six states included Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France. During the Second World War, Europe lost many lives and it was economically affected to a great extent. The atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Holocaust adversely affected Europe greatly. This aroused a calling for a United States of Europe from leaders such as Winston Churchill. Coal and steel were the raw materials in making weapons of war and these two industries were integrated. This led to the signing of the coal and steel treaties. However, based on the Coal and Steel Treaty success, the six nations have continued to expand their cooperation to other states responding to different emerging challenges in the world. Previously, many European states had been unified through force by empires such as, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Ottoman Empire and many others, the European Union confederation emphasized on democracy (Tallberg 2005). The devastating effects of war triggered many leaders to be on the fore front to advocate for a more unified Europe and their determination to curb violent conflicts among European countries in future. On 1st November, 1993, the Maastricht Treaty is signed which created the European Union. This means that European Union is as a result of evolution from one level of cooperation within the member states in the union to the othe r. The gradual integration since the end of World War II has made the member states gain confidence in each other to an extent of even creating a single currency union that allows for free trade amongst them. Governance in the European is complex and integrated. It is divided into seven institutions including; European Parliament, Council, Commission, Central Bank, Court of Auditors, Council of the EU and the Court of Justice of the EU. Each of the above institution is mandated to undertake certain duties and responsibilities. The paper seeks to explain the advantages and
Monday, February 10, 2020
Managerial Accounting - Essay Example Anything in which a firm excels than its competitors is considered as its competitive advantage. Michael Porter has mentioned three main strategies in order to gain the market share by acquiring competitive advantage. They include: Cost Leadership Differentiation Focus Differentiation Cost Leadership Parts Limited is that company which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t earn through number of units sold, but it maximizes its profits through the price of units. Parts Limited charges higher prices to its customer which means that they sell their products on relatively premium prices. When it comes to cost differentiation, this strategy is an option for Parts Limited. There is a possibility that the company start focusing on generating revenue not through premium prices but through number of units sold. ... In my opinion, this strategy is currently availed by Parts Limited because it is selling its unique products and charging premium prices for them. These products are perceived as unique and important in the eyes of the customers and the firm utilizing this strategy, usually is aware of the needs and unique demands of its customers. Focus Differentiation This strategy usually consists of two variants. In focus strategy a firm can either go for: a) Focus differentiation in its own target market b) Cost focus to seek cost advantage within its target market In this regard, usually targeted customers have unusual needs or the delivery of production system. Cost focus assist in acquiring cost advantage of a particular segment whereas focus differentiation fulfills the special and unique needs of the customers. As far as Parts Limited is concerned, this type of strategy cannot be applicable for a company dealing in machines industry. The reason is hardly customers are concerned about using unique and high priced parts for their machines. In fact, the emphasis is basically on sustainable and good quality products. This type of strategy mostly applies in the apparel & garment industry, cellular industry, electronics industry (including personal computers, T.Vs etc.), cosmetic industry etc. Implications of PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Generic Strategy In the above section, a brief analysis has been done of each of the three porterÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. Coming to back to Parts Limited and before analyzing which strategy can prove to be productive for Parts Limited; all the three strategies need to be analyzed in respect of Parts Limited. a) Product Differentiation Parts Limited has been utilizing product differentiation strategy. It
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The decline of the Great Muslim Empires Essay From the middle of the fifteenth century and up to the end of the eighteenth century three Great Muslim Empires had been dominating in the Islamic zone of then world: the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor, the Mughal Empire in India, and the Safavid Empire in Persia, forming the most rapidly expanding forces in world affairs (Kennedy 1989). They all failed sooner or later due to the internal factors such as weakening of centralized political control, excessive enlargement of the territories, religious diversity, and rulers conservatism resulted in failure to implement the modern technologies (Kennedy 1989). The prevailing factors of their sunset were not the same for each of them, although there were several common ones. But the major contribution to the process of their decay was made by the outer world. Internal weaknesses were enough to wreck the Muslim empires, but each also failed to recognize the threat to their dominance posed by the rise of the West. By the beginning of the seventeenth century the main world communication routes didnt pass through the Middle East any more and the European states dominated at sea turning a profit from their advances in science and technology and successfully carrying out the gunpowder policy as well as promoting their trade on the territories earlier controlled by the Muslim empires (Wells 1933). To find the factors which led to the decline of the Great Mughals, the Safavid Dynasty, and the Ottoman Empire, while the Europeans went ahead, we should investigate their features, compare them and draw a conclusion. Ã Considering chronology of their decline, one can find a certain similarity Ã¢â¬â the period of extinction went along by the reign of a certain leader: the Ottomans fell apart after Suleyman the Lawgiver rule, the Safavids Ã¢â¬â by the end of Abbas Is reign, and the Mughals Ã¢â¬â after Aurangzers rule. The timing of collapse for the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires substantially differ. While the Ottoman state declined for the period of three centuries, the Safavids drop was much faster as well as those of the Great Mughals. The reason of rapid Safavids decay noticeably lied in the uselessness to defend from the neighboring Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth century resulted in complacence of the Safavid Shans, their growing corruption and decadence. The Mughal Empires fall is owed to heavy hand rule and aggressive East India Company trade policy. Ottoman rulers in turn had a very shortÃ¢â¬âterm policy unwilling to develop their territory as well as to invest in it and mercilessly exploiting land and peoples, they relied on continuous expansion for stability, and when the empire did not grow, it gradually collapsed (Hooker 1999). The Ottoman Empire was the longÃ¢â¬âlived one in comparison with the Mughals and the Safavid dynasty (a shortÃ¢â¬âlived one). It reached its peak by 1600 under the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent and then has been gradually declined up to the end of the eighteenth century, but even survived through the First World War, and was disbanded in 1918. The Mughal Empire survived until 1857, it, as Phillip Myers affirmed, lasted upwards of 300 years, Ã¢â¬â until destroyed by the English in the present century, but in fact its rulers after 1803 were the pensioners of the East India Company (Myers 1902). As for the Safavids their demise after the reign of Abbas I was too prompt, and internal disorder plagued the empire which resulted in Afgans successful conquest of its capital Isfahan in 1722 (Hooker 1999). The Ottoman TurksÃ¢â¬ ¦ were to falter, to turn inward, and to loose the chance of world dominationÃ¢â¬ ¦ To a certain extent it could be argued that this process was the natural consequence of earlier Turkish successes: the Ottoman army, however well administrated, might be able to maintain the lengthy frontiers, but could hardly expand farther without enormous cost in men and money (Kennedy 1989). The latter thought by Paul Kennedy could be referred not only to the Ottomans Ã¢â¬â it also determines one of the main economic reasons underlying the nature of Safavids and Mughals sunset. It is very expensive business to run an empire encompassing vast territory and one day such empire becomes too big to be successfully governed. The rapid expansion of the Muslim Empires spread their governments and military administrations too thin. The enormous expenses impoverished them and built up longÃ¢â¬âstanding hostility among the people towards the lavish emperors. This subsequently led to the frequent rebellions and instability in the society in all three concerned empires (Hooker 1999). The lack of flexibility in attitude to the newer weaponry and resistance to any military technology that threatened the dominance of the Muslim Empires caused them to fall behind Western nations. Backwardness of Janissaries, their hereditary membership since 1637 resulted in transformation of Ottomans powerful army into a mob of cobblers and weavers. In case of the Mughals the most dramatic effect was taken by the recruitment of slave armies that finally became to dominate their hirers and govern independently. Similarly to them the Safavid Shan Tahmasp I begun introduction of converted slaves into military since the middle of the sixteenth century who later would acquire positions of influence under Shah Abbas I. But after conclusion of the treaty delimitating frontiers with the Ottomans in 1639 the army got peace and declined in size and quality (Kennedy 1989). During the seventeenth century all three empires showed the signs of weakening centralized political control. At the same time vast corruption among the bureaucracy and local aristocracy became evident. In the Safavid Empire which was a theocracy unlike the Ottoman and Mughal nations a new class of wealthy religious aristocrats owed everything to the state, but plundered it. Later sultans in the Ottoman Empire reduced to puppets dominated by Janissaries and viziers. Venality and corruption run through all level of bureaucracy. The last Mughal powerful emperor Aurangzeb decided to extend the territory under his control to the entire Indian subcontinent, and this campaign although being successful emptied his exchequer and increased his enemies. He faced rebellions in the north, and throughout the empire Islamic invaders, Hindu separatists and Sikh revolutionaries caused centralized political control to break down. Furthermore the rebellions in all three empires were excited over economic reasons: the heavy tax burden posed on peasants, alienation of the nonÃ¢â¬âMuslim merchant classes in the Ottoman Empire; land seizures from Quizilbash landholders by the Safavid ruler Abbas I; a punitive tax on Hindu subjects reÃ¢â¬âimposed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (Hooker 1999). Religious diversity also contributed to the Great Muslims decay, although not so much as the above mentioned factors. Without religious tolerance the empires got a great many internal enemies disposed to the rebellions. The complexity of religion issue interrupted also the further development of the Muslim Empires. For example, Paul Kennedy stated with respect to the Mughals, that the system was weak at the core. The sheer rigidity of Hindu religious taboos militated against modernization (Kennedy 1989). The crisis in the Muslim Empires deepened also due to the external factors. They all were based on land routes, not sea travel, and this enabled the Europeans to dominate in trade by sea after discovering African water route to India by the Portuguese explorers. Muslim monopoly of trade with Asia ended then which unsettled the Ottoman economy and led to the inflation there. Although the English occasionally traded through Persia, the Safavids economy was weakened as well by the general loss of trade. Since the seventeenth century the trade routes in the world went through the oceans, which let the Europeans to have a great advantage controlling the trade by sea with India and the Far East. Having no seafaring skills, the Muslim Empires failed to resist to such domination, and they were to be reconciled with the presence of the Europeans in their cities (Wells 1933). In conclusion, the immense Muslim Empires were doomed to lose to the Europeans who advanced in science and technology, removed one of the sources of profit for the Muslim merchants having discovered new trade sea routes, and rose powerful nationÃ¢â¬âstates able to gain territories not only due to gunpowder policy, but as the result of successful economic invasion. The Western Europeans, and particularly the Dutch, the Scandinavians, the Spanish, the Portuguese, the French and the British were extending the area of their struggles across the seas of all the worldÃ¢â¬ ¦ Great innovation, the oceanÃ¢â¬âgoing sailing ship, was inexorably extending the range of European experience to the further most limits of saltÃ¢â¬âwater (Wells 1933). Bibliography Hooker, Richard. World Civilizations. Islam. Washington State University Web Site. 1999. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MODULES.HTM Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. London: Fontana Press. 1989. Pp. 10Ã¢â¬â16. Myers, Phillip V. N. A General History for Colleges and High Schools. Boston, U.S.A., and London: CINN Company Publishers. 1902. Pp. 460Ã¢â¬â464. Wells, Herbert G. A Short History of the World. London: Waterlow Sons Ltd. Printers. 1933. Pp. 168Ã¢â¬â235.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s New World Dictionary definition of affirmative action is Ã¢â¬Ëa policy or program for correcting the effects of discrimination in the employment or education of members of certain groups.Ã¢â¬â¢ President Lyndon B. Johnson issued the Executive Order 11246 requiring federal contractors to use affirmative action to increase the number of minorities that are employed. He also created the Office or Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) which set out to find the exact meaning of Ã¢â¬ËAffirmative ActionÃ¢â¬â¢ (Woods). Affirmative action is supposed to create ways for people to experience equal opportunities in the work place and for students wanting to go to college. However, while creating equal opportunities for some, it discriminated against others. With the passing of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, many corporations created new ways of going around affirmative action without creating a lot of attention. Some companies created programs that would make it harder for minorities to get . One company, Duke Power Company of North Carolina, created a rule where in order to be considered for a promotion, you had to have been a high school graduate and pass 2 tests that were administered. These qualifications were mainly for the labor divisions which consisted of mainly black men. The problem being at the time only 12% of the black in North Carolina had passed high school, meaning they would not be eligible for the promotions. In 1961 it was taken to the Supreme Court and the 9 Justices unanimously agreed that this was a form a discrimination against blacks (Woods). Besides employees, students applying for college were being affected greatly. The affirmative action programs were becoming the basis for admission to college. This was creating unfair advantages of minorities over others. One man who felt this way was Allan Burke. Burke a 35 year old man decided to attend medical school. He applied to many schools, but was turned down because of his age. One school he applied at was University of California at Davis. The application contained a section that read, Ã¢â¬ËApplicants from economically and educationally disadvantaged backgrounds are evaluated by a special subcommittee of the admissions committee.Ã¢â¬â¢ Whoever checked this was evaluated by a special task force which was created to bring in more minority students.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Abstract: The purposes of this lab is to observe the reactions of some common chemicals contained in consumer products and observe the macroscopic changes these chemicals undergo. Purpose: The purpose of the lab is to be able to interpret underlying macroscopic changes in terms of the behavior of atoms and molecules and also to learn how to separate mixtures into their component substances by solubility. Procedures/Materials Needed: 1 Toothpicks 1 Sheet of white and dark paper 1 Paper towel 1 Distilled water 1 Small amounts of household cleaning products 1 Goggle-safety 1 Well-Plate-24 1 Well-Plate-96 1 Pipet, Empty Short Stem 1 Aqueous Ammonia, 1M -1mL 1 Bromthymol Blue, 0.04% Ã¢â¬â 2 mL in Pipet 1 Copper (II) Sulfate, 0.2 M Ã¢â¬â 2 mL in Pipet 1 FDC Blue Dye #-1.0.1% Ã¢â¬â 2 mL in Pipet 1 Hydrochloric Acid, 1.0M-1 mL 1 Lead (II) Nitrate, 0.2 M- 2 mL in Pipet 1 PhenolphthaleinSolution1%1mL 1 Potassium Iodide, 0.1 M-2 mL in Pipet 1 Silver Nitrate, 0.1 N Ã¢â¬â 2 mL in white Dropper Bottle 1 Sodium Bicarbonate, 1 M Ã¢â¬â 2 mL in Pipet 1 Sodium Hydroxide, 1 M Ã¢â¬â 1 mL 1 Sodium Hypochlorite, 1% Ã¢â¬â 2 mL in Pipet 1 Starch Solution, 1% Stabilized Ã¢â¬â 2 mL in Pipet 1. For the following combinations of chemicals and using a different well of the 96-well plate for each combination, place 2 pipet drops of the first in one well and add 2 drops of the second chemical. Next observe the mixtures against the white and dark backgrounds by slipping white and black paper underneath the well plate. For each reaction record the well number of the mixture and your observations. a. Sodium Bicarbonate and Hydrochloric Acid b. Hydrochloric Acid and Bromothymol Blue c. Ammonia and Bromothymol Blue d. Hydrochloric Acid and Blue Dye e. Blue Dye and Sodium Hypochlorite f. Potassium Iodide and Lead Nitrate g. Sodium Hydroxide and Phenolphthalein h. Hydrochloric Acid and Phenolphthalein i. Sodium Hydroxide and Silver Nitrate j. Silver Nitrate and Ammonia k. Ammonia and Copper Sulfate Data and Observations: Sodium Hydroxide and Silver Nitrate Silver Nitrate and Ammonia Ammonia and Copper Sulfate Hint of pink when silver added looks like brown mud Brown Sediment layer baby blue with dark layer on top. A. Suppose a household product label says it contains sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate). How would you test this material for the presence of sodium bicarbonate? You would mix it with HCI and observe it for bubbles. B. You know what color phenolphthalein and Bromothymol blue turn when testing an acid or a base. Use the empty pipet in the Auxiliary Supplies Bag to test several household items including household cleaning products with Bromothymol. Name the items tested and record their results. What do these results mean? Bleach with Bromothymol Blue Ã¢â¬â Yellow and blue layer/ it separates the acid and the base. Hand Soap with Bromothymol Blue Ã¢â¬â Turned yellow which means itÃ¢â¬â¢s an acid. Ammonia with Bromothymol Blue Ã¢â¬â Dark blue which means itÃ¢â¬â¢s a base. C. You found a sample of a solution that has a faint odor of vinegar. You are verifying that is indeed vinegar and you add a few drops of phenolphthalein. The sample turns pink. What assumption can you make about this sample. When turning pink it would mean it was a basic solution meaning the solution isnÃ¢â¬â¢t vinegar because vinegar is an acid. D. You decided to investigate if the new wave of vitamin water is pH neutral: neither to acidic nor to basic. Using Bromothymol blue, you select five flavors of Vitamin Water to test. Three of the flavor-samples turn a murkyÃ green, indicating the likelihood of acid/base balance. Of the two remaining, one turns slight yellow, while one remains blue. What can you assume about the acid/base content of these particular flavors of Vitamin Water. You could assume that the three were neutral, the more yellow solution was more acidic and the blue solution was basic. E. You have read that a new brand of hair tonic is supposed to contain lead (an ingredient in Grecian Formula). Devise a simple test to confirm the presence or absence of lead in that hair tonic. You could add potassium iodide and if there is lead it will precipitate. Results/Analysis: The objective of the lab was to observe the macroscopic changes that occur in chemical reactions and attempt to interrupt the macroscopic changes of the atoms and molecules that allow for the macroscopic changes to happen. This taught me how to distinguish between acids and bases, how to differentiate between one chemicals reaction to many different other chemicals when added together and what these reactions mean. Errors that could have occurred were that the drops of chemicals could have easily been different sizes, which could have made the reactions different than if everything was an even ratio. Although since we were using such small amounts of each of the chemicals I feel the reactions were quit normal. Except for the silver nitrate and ammonia, there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t any reaction that was recorded because I feel we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t use enough chemicals. We used our observations from another lab group whose paper turned brown after some time under a light. This error could have occurred because we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold our tissue closer to the light bulb or long enough. Conclusion: This lab experiment forces an individual to think critically as to what macroscopic changes are occurring and why they are occurring. It taught us the difference between acids, bases, and neutrals, also if two specific chemicals are mixed together such as, potassium iodide and lead nitrate it will take on a precipitate form. I also learned how important ratios are in an experiment. If one chemical is greater than another, than aÃ completely different reaction can occur than expected. With this said it is also important for us to learn how to separate mixtures into their component substance and solubility. If specific chemicals for example, HDI were greater in ratio than the reactions could have turned out much different. All in all, the entire lab was presumably helpful and a great introduction for whatÃ¢â¬â¢s to come in class.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Imagine walking through a hallway of pictures and artifacts, feeling so much emotion, reliving the past of the Holocaust. Once a person walks through those doors to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum he or she immediately feel those emotions pouring from the walls and flooding from the visitors all around feeling what it once felt like to be apart of the Holocaust and witness such a horrendous tragedy. Because the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum provides many exhibitions and visuals for visitors, it really gives a person a vivid view into what the Holocaust was truly like. In the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum many features include vivid exhibits, memorials, plenty of educational opportunities for all ages, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Children in Ã¢â¬Å"DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s StoryÃ¢â¬ can pull letters down from the walls and ceilings and read them, along with telephones that can be picked up that ask questions or statements about the Holocaust. (4) The Hall of Remembrance is candle lit memorial that is covered in names of those who were victims to the Holocaust, then for the Wall of Remembrance there are tiles amongst a wall that show sentimental and simple images from the Holocaust Aftermath. (4) For the older children that visit the museum there is the Second Floor, Wexner Learning Center, that features touch screen computers that can pull up information (music, photos, and witness interviews) on the Holocaust or what occurred during the Aftermath. (4) One of the last of many features in the museum is about other genocides that occurred i n other parts of the world. For example, the genocide of Sudan called, Ã¢â¬Å"Sudan Divided: People at Risk.Ã¢â¬ (3) All of the these exhibits that visitors enjoy have created the reasons as to why the museum has come intoShow MoreRelatedHitlers Willing Executioners by Daniel Goldhagen1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGerman readers. His simplistic explanation that the Germans were advocates for the killing of the Jews and that Hitler and the rest of the Nazi party simply unlocked these murderous tendencies appealed to many readers as it made it the origins of the Holocaust easy to understand. As Ruth Bettina Birn argued, Goldhagens book served those who wish a simplistic explanation to very complex events. Goldhagen also sticks with the forceful tone in which he wrote his book. In his introduction, he states his reasonsRead MoreRoberto BenigniÃ¢â¬â¢s Life is Beautiful Essay712 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesconcentration camp during the Holocaust. The movie gives an inside look at the horrors the Jews were faced with during the Holocaust. ?Life Is Beautiful? should be incorporated into a unit on the Holocaust in schools because it shows everything the Jews were faced with, it handles expressing the horrors of the Holocaust without being too graphic, and it would help students get a more personal feeling of what happened to the Jews. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ?Life Is Beautiful? gives the audience a vivid look into what happenedRead MoreLife Is Beautiful Essay713 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesconcentration camp during the Holocaust. The movie gives an inside look at the horrors the Jews were faced with during the Holocaust. Life Is Beautiful should be incorporated into a unit on the Holocaust in schools because it shows everything the Jews were faced with, it handles expressing the horrors of the Holocaust without being too graphic, and it would help students get a more personal feeling of what happened to the Jews. Life Is Beautiful gives the audience a vivid look into what happenedRead MoreEssay about Elie Wiesels Night881 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe tragedies of the holocaust forever altered history. One of the most detailed accounts of the horrific events from the Nazi regime comes from Elie WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s Night. He describes his traumatic experiences in German concentration camps, mainly Buchenwald, and engages his readers from a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. He bravely shares the grotesque visions that are permanently ingrained in his mind. His autobiography gives readers vivid, unforgettable, and shocking images of the past. It is beneficial thatRead MoreThe Effect Of The Holocaust1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Evaluate the effect of the Holocaust Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-Semitic views resulted in the genocide of 6 million Jews within Europe during the 20th Century. Blaming Jews for the economic crisis that Germany was suffering, as well as GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s humiliating losses during World War 1, Hitler targeted Jews as the countries main enemy by building on and using anti-Semitic ideas that already existed throughout Germany to amplify the German peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s utter hatred for Jews. Nuremburg laws, Liberation of JewsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Milkweed By Jerry Spinelli1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages What happens to a person who has no identity at a time when identity can be oneÃ¢â¬â¢s last hope Ã¢â¬â their salvation or a mark for death. In his novel Milkweed, Jerry Spinelli invites readers to experience the Holocaust through the eye of a young boy who misunderstands everything except the love of family and the different forms it can take. Misha, an orphan boy is taken in by a young group of Jewish thieves. He is simple minded of his own identity because Misha adopts the identity of the people aroundRead MoreThe Holocaust: Night by Elie Wiesel1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSix million Jews were killed during the Holocaust. The Jews were persecuted, tortured and slaughtered in concentration camps (Ã¢â¬Å"The HolocaustÃ¢â¬ 1). Night by Elie Wiesel is the powerful memoir of his experiences during the Holocaust. Night shows the tragedy of the Holocaust through the use literary devices, including the themes of loss of faith and cruelty toward other human beings, night as a s ymbol of suffering and fear, and the use of first person narrative. Night allows the reader to emotionallyRead MoreCarol Ann Duffy Shooting Stars1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHowever it is not until we reach the actual content of the poem that we realise that the stars in question are those Stars of David, sewn on to the garments of Jews on the order of the Nazi regime. Duffy establishes the darkness and horror of the Holocaust immediately in the first line of the poem in the phrase Ã¢â¬ËAfter I no longer speakÃ¢â¬â¢. Here Duffy creates an incredibly strong image of silence and death when the voice has been stilled permanently. The horror is continued in the image created byRead MoreMaus : A Survivor s Tale I And II902 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand guilt over this conversation. This overall affects the mood and tone of the book because when reading the reader picks up on hints of deep guilt, and this thereby allows the reader to get a look at Spiegelman s mind. Survivor s guilt is also vivid in his book(s) In Maus I his father s survivor s guilt is present when he discussed the public hanging of people he knew. His father describes how he felt after he saw them hanging: Ã¢â¬Å"I was frightened to go outside for a few days I didn t want toRead MoreThe Influence of Art on Our World Essay985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshas never came to you before. Their words get into your mind and send you this message and influence you to think of matters in different ways. In the book Night, written by Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel, he states, Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. (Pg. 32) Right there is a very vivid statement, it draws out a deep picture that is connected to someones spiritual being. Faith is something many of us have, and when you read that, you just formed a connection